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Research methods

The research methods refer to the data collection and data analysis stages in the research process.

There are two categories of research methods: Quantitative methods and Qualitative methods, each of these employing specific tools for data collection and analysis.



Babbie, E. (2011). The Basics of Social Research. 5th edition. Belmont, USA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

Bhattacherjee, A. (2012). Social Science Research: Principles, Methods, and Practices. Textbook Collection. Book 3. Retrieved from https://scholarcommons.usf.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1002&context=oa_textbooks

Creswell, J.W. (2012). Educational Research. Planning, Conducting and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research. 4th edition. Boston, USA: Pearson Education, Inc.

Creswell, J.W. (2014). Research Design. Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches. 4th edition. USA: SAGE Publications, Inc.


Research methods for data collection

Quantitative methods

  • Surveys (questionnaires)

  • Experiments

  • Observations

Qualitative methods

  • Interviews

  • Focus groups

  • Observations

Research methods for data analysis

Quantitative methods

  • Descriptive statistics

  • Inferential statistics

Qualitative methods

  • Narrative analysis

  • Grounded theory

Additional Resources

Data collection methods - https://research-methodology.net/research-methods/

Research Methods and Methodologies - https://www2.le.ac.uk/offices/red/rd/research-methods-and-methodologies

Research Methods Guide: Research Design & Method - https://guides.lib.vt.edu/researchmethods/design-method