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Quantitative research
Quantitative research measures the number, the quantity or amount, answering to the question “how many…”, and tries to project for future period. The quantitative research refers to the systematic empirical investigation of phenomena and their relationships. The objective of quantitative research is to develop and employ mathematical models, theories or hypothesis that provide predictions and generalizations.
In social sciences, quantitative research is mainly used in economics, marketing, sociology, psychology, political science, and less frequently in anthropology and history. Research in natural sciences, such as physics, biology, is also quantitative by definition.
Quantitative methods for collecting data are chosen when the research needs to:
 Identify the factors that influence a certain outcome
 Establish the usefulness of a certain action
 Generalize a result and predict trends
 Collect large volumes of data
 Establish patterns
 Develop mathematical models
The quantitative methods for data collection are:

Surveys (questionnaires): ask the same questions to large numbers of participants and measure opinions as numerical data

Experiments: testing hypotheses in laboratories, testing cause and effect relationships, through field experiments

Observations: counting the number of times a specific phenomenon occurs, or the coding of observational data in order to translate it into numbers
The quantitative methods for data analysis are:

Descriptive statistics: describes the basic features of the data in a study (what happens in the data collected), provides simple summaries about the sample and the measures

Inferential statistics: reaches conclusions that extend beyond the immediate data alone, makes inferences from the collected data to more general conditions
Sources:
Babbie, E. (2011). The Basics of Social Research. 5th edition. Belmont, USA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Bhattacherjee, A. (2012). Social Science Research: Principles, Methods, and Practices. Textbook Collection. Book 3. Retrieved from https://scholarcommons.usf.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1002&context=oa_textbooks
Creswell, J.W. (2014). Research Design. Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches. 4th edition. USA: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Trochim, W.M.K. (2006). Descriptive Statistics. Retrieved from: http:// http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/statdesc.php
Trochim, W.M.K. (2006). Inferential Statistics. Retrieved from: http:// http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/statinf.php
Additional Resources
Quantitative Research  https://www.questionpro.com/blog/quantitativeresearch/
Quantitative Methods  https://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/quantitative
Quantitative Methods  https://www2.le.ac.uk/offices/red/rd/researchmethodsandmethodologies/quantitativemethods